This glossary presents some of the words used in the guides that may need to be explained. The definitions below are not intended to be exhaustive, but should help you to better understand the concepts referred to, and the issues associated with them.



Captive species

In this context, this expression refers to animal species that have become accustomed to the presence of human beings but retain their characteristics as wild animals (e.g., A wolf may have been tamed by human beings, but it will never be fully domesticated).

Carbon footprint

A carbon footprint is an indicator that measures the impact of an action or activity on the environment. It is based on the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted during the action or activity, whether it is performed by a person, an organisation, a company, a government, an object, or a process. Contrary to popular belief, the carbon footprint doesn’t only measure CO2. It actually includes the combined emissions of three greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). However, to simplify its understanding, we express the carbon footprint in tons of CO2 equivalent (CO2e). Source: Les Horizons


An event or action that frees an individual from their impulses, thus remedying a latent trauma. 

CGI casting

CGI stands for “Computer Generated Imagery”, or digital special effects. This term refers to special effects created by animation and synthetic images. Some video game productions use motion capture technologies (with an actor wearing a specific costume to record their movements and morphology), which allows them to generate CGI images from the actor’s role-play. The actor’s morphology captured by this technique can then be used to influence the animated character’s features and movements.


This expression refers to the circular economy. The circular economy is an economic system of production that aims, at all stages of the product (goods and services) life cycle, to increase the efficiency of how resources are used and reduce environmental impact while improving individuals’ well-being. Circularity is based on 7 pillars involving public authorities, private stakeholders, and citizens. These pillars include sustainable sourcing, eco-design, industrial and territorial ecology, functional economy, responsible consumption, extended useful life, and recycling. (Source: ADEME) It is often summarised by the 5 Rs: Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, Rot.


Daily needs

This definition is not static, as it is subject to interpretation by each individual. It is used in this guide to designate the physiological needs associated with rational and necessary consumption. Abraham Maslow, an American humanistic psychologist (1916-1972), identified five types of basic needs that are still referred to today and that he classified as follows: 1. Vital or physiological needs (eating, drinking, sleeping, breathing, etc.) 2. Safety and protection needs (personal security, employment, health, property, etc.) 3. Social needs (love, friendship, belonging, etc.) 4. Self-esteem needs (confidence, respect for others, etc.) 5. Self-actualization needs (personal accomplishment)


“Persons with disabilities include those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual, or sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.” (Source: United Nations) The World Health Organization classifies disabilities into 5 broad categories: Motor disability Sensory disability (visual and auditory) Psychological disability (illnesses affecting personality) Cognitive disability (intellectual disabilities) Disabling illnesses.


All persons who differ from one another in terms of geographical, sociocultural, or religious origin, age, sex, sexual orientation, etc., and make up the national community to which they belong. (Source: Larousse)


As related to dystopia (an antonym of utopia): A fictional narrative depicting a very dark imaginary world in which the inhabitants are unable to achieve happiness.


Environmental and social transition

Describes the transformational path toward a societal model reconciling economic sustainability, reduced environmental pressure, and social justice. This model invites us to rethink the ways we consume, produce, work, and live together.

Environmental and social issues

This expression represents the challenges related to planetary limitations and social justice perceived as needing to be taken into account to promote a sustainable society that respects living beings. These challenges include climate change; biodiversity preservation; the transition to sustainable agricultural and food systems; sustainable mobility; well-being, health, and quality of life; the commitment to equality, parity, and inclusion for all; the fight against poverty and exclusion; waste reduction; etc.


Green electricity

This term refers to electricity produced from renewable energy sources. Electricity is deemed “green” if the supplier can prove that an amount of green electricity equivalent to the customer’s electricity consumption has been injected into the grid. (Source: Energies info) It’s important to note that just because an electricity source is referred to as “green” does not mean its production does not emit any greenhouse gas (GHG).



Theorised by Afro-feminist activist and lawyer Kimberlé Williams Crenshaw, this sociological term refers to the situation of people who simultaneously experience several forms of discrimination or domination in a society. For example: A Black, lesbian woman is likely to experience three types of discrimination related to her gender, her perceived origin, and her sexual orientation.


Act of integrating a person or group by putting an end to their exclusion, particularly their social exclusion. (Source: Larousse) Social inclusion is about changing how we view our relationship with others and with differences. Rather than wanting “nonconformists” to come as close as possible to the “norm,” the norm itself is re-evaluated.

Impact campaign

Set of actions carried out in connection to a film with the goal of achieving concrete change by extending the film experience and giving viewers tools to take action. It is created in collaboration with relevant civil society stakeholders and decision-makers and is complementary to a traditional marketing campaign that accompanies the film’s release in theatres or on TV.


Living beings

In the strict sense, this term refers to beings animated by life, as opposed to inert objects. From a biological point of view, this term includes human beings, plants, and animals. To this we can also add the definition of biodiversity as defined by the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), which was signed in Rio in 1992: “Variability among living organisms from all sources, including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.”


This acronym designates people who are not heterosexual by repeating the first letter of other forms of sexuality, including: L for lesbian G for gay B for bisexual T for transgender: A person whose sex at birth does not correspond to their gender identity (the opposite of cisgender: A person whose sex at birth corresponds to their gender identity). Q for queer: A person who does not consider themselves as heterosexual or does not identify with a defined gender. I for intersex: A person born neither male nor female. A for asexual: A person who does not “feel the need to engage in sexual relations” + for all other sexual and gender identities not covered by the acronym.



Parity means that each gender is represented equally in institutions. It is an instrument for achieving equality that consists of ensuring that women and men have access to the same opportunities, rights, ability to make choices, and material conditions while respecting their individual characteristics. The concept of parity is at the foundation of policies that combat inequalities between women and men. (Source: INSEE)

Perceived origin

Involves dividing individuals according to common categories based on whether they are perceived as being “white,” “Black,” “Asian,” or “other.”



Some common clichés (or tropes) that can be conveyed by games or narratives: 

  • sexist: towards women  
  • racist: based on perceived or geographical origin 
  • homophobic: towards homosexual people 
  • transphobic: towards trans people 
  • ableist: point of view of an able-bodied person (someone without a disability) 
  • sizeist: towards overweight or obese people 
  • ageist: based on age 
  • financial situation/social class 

Symbolic (“symbolic violence”)

This expression, used by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, refers to the power to impose a system of thought as legitimate on a “dominated” population through education and the media. (Source: Linternaute).



Here, the elements that make up the world in which video game characters exist. 



Deemed as true, beautiful, good, from a personal point of view or according to the criteria of a society. Presented as an ideal to achieve/something to defend. (Source: Larousse)